For details and more information on our Eco-Friendly “Green” PVC Compound please e-mail us, or call 1-949-306-6899.
Who is NHG PVC?
For more than 50 years, PVC has been utilized throughout the world. Today, this versatile material is one of the most important plastic materials recognized internationally with a lengthy history of success worldwide.
Nhat Huy Group (NHG) is one of the largest plastics companies in Vietnam, and one of the foremost PVC suppliers in the world. In fact, NHG supplies many of the major manufacturers in Europe and China with environmentally friendly PVC compound. Green PVC JSC is a PVC compound factory that belongs to Nhat Huy group. It was built based on the success of filler and CaCO3 factories that are utilized to help save cost producing your PVC compound.
Check this video out showing you the Conair NCF PVC Granulator, and how much of our work is done!
NHG Eco-Friendly PVC Compound ADVANTAGES
NHG has a very successful CaCO3 factory that is so competitive other PVC manufacturers utilize us for much of their environmentally friendly compounds. We have a vast number of experienced workers who take pride in utilizing lean manufacturing techniques to help reduce costs, passing the savings on to you!
Advantages of utilizing NHG Eco-Friendly PVC Compound:
- Low MOQ: We can make small orders fairly quickly for you.
- OEM jobs Accepted : We can match any of your samples, and produce exactly what you need.
- Impeccable Service : Through our partnership with Unique Sales Agency, we offer you the best service on the planet.
- The Very Best Quality: We a have strict quality control system and our customers are very happy with our products. Our reputation in the market is stellar because our quality is unsurpassed.
- Fast & Inexpensive Delivery: Our global operations lets us utilize a long contract with our freight forwarder who moves our PVC both quickly, and inexpensively. We will surpass your expectations.
NHG Eco-Friendly “Green” PVC Compound APPLICATIONS
- PVC compound for cable, wire
- PVC compound for boot, shoe sole, hose
- PVC compound for pipe fittings, washer
- PVC compound for textiles
- PVC compound for corrugated pipes
- PVC compound for plastic carpets
- And More!
NHG Eco-Friendly PVC has a variety of uses
PVC compounds can be used to produce cable insulation, sheathing, flame retardant sheathing, flame retardant – low smoke sheathing, high-temperature cable applications, non-migratory sheathing, welding cables, and more.
What is PVC?
PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid (sometimes abbreviated as RPVC) and flexible. The rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe and in profile applications such as doors and windows. It is also used for bottles, other non-food packaging, and cards (such as bank or membership cards). It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition ofplasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. In this form, it is also used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, imitation leather, signage, inflatable products, and many applications where it replaces rubber.
Pure poly (vinyl chloride) is a white, brittle solid. It is insoluble in alcohol but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran.
PVC was accidentally synthesized in 1872 by German chemist Eugen Baumann. The polymer appeared as a white solid inside a flask of vinyl chloride that had been left exposed to sunlight. In the early 20th century the Russian chemist Ivan Ostromislensky and Fritz Klatteof the German chemical company Griesheim-Elektron both attempted to use PVC in commercial products, but difficulties in processing the rigid, sometimes brittle polymer thwarted their efforts. Waldo Semon and the B.F. Goodrich Company developed a method in 1926 toplasticize PVC by blending it with various additives. The result was a more flexible and more easily processed material that soon achieved widespread commercial use.
About 80% of production involves suspension polymerization. Emulsion polymerization accounts for about 12% and bulk polymerizationaccounts for 8%. Suspension polymerizations affords particles with average diameters of 100–180 μm, whereas emulsion polymerization gives much smaller particles of average size around 0.2 μm. VCM and water are introduced into the reactor and a polymerization initiator, along with other additives. The reaction vessel is pressure tight to contain the VCM. The contents of the reaction vessel are continually mixed to maintain the suspension and ensure a uniform particle size of the PVC resin. The reaction is exothermic, and thus requires cooling. As the volume is reduced during the reaction (PVC is denser than VCM), water is continually added to the mixture to maintain the suspension.
The polymerization of VCM is started by compounds called initiators that are mixed into the droplets. These compounds break down to start the radical chain reaction. Typical initiators include dioctanoyl peroxide and dicetyl peroxydicarbonate, both of which have fragile O-O bonds. Some initiators start the reaction rapidly but decay quickly and other initiators have the opposite effect. A combination of two different initiators is often used to give a uniform rate of polymerization. After the polymer has grown by about 10x, the short polymer precipitates inside the droplet of VCM, and polymerization continues with the precipitated, solvent-swollen particles. The weight average molecular weights of commercial polymers range from 100,000 to 200,000 and the number average molecular weights range from 45,000 to 64,000.
Once the reaction has run its course, the resulting PVC slurry is degassed and stripped to remove excess VCM, which is recycled. The polymer is then passed through a centrifuge to remove water. The slurry is further dried in a hot air bed, and the resulting powder sieved before storage or pelletization. Normally, the resulting PVC has a VCM content of less than 1 part per million. Other production processes, such as micro-suspension polymerization and emulsion polymerization, produce PVC with smaller particle sizes (10 μm vs. 120–150 μm for suspension PVC) with slightly different properties and with somewhat different sets of applications.
The polymers are linear and are strong. The monomers are mainly arranged head-to-tail, meaning that there are chlorides on alternating carbon centres. PVC has mainly an atactic stereochemistry, which means that the relative stereochemistry of the chloride centres are random. Some degree of syndiotacticity of the chain gives a few percent crystallinity that is influential on the properties of the material. About 57% of the mass of PVC is chlorine. The presence of chloride groups gives the polymer very different properties from the structurally related material polyethylene.
Additives to finished PVC polymer
The product of the polymerization process is unmodified PVC. Before PVC can be made into finished products, it always requires conversion into a compound by the incorporation of additives (but not necessarily all of the following) such as heat stabilizers, UVstabilizers, plasticizers, processing aids, impact modifiers, thermal modifiers, fillers, flame retardants, biocides, blowing agents and smoke suppressors, and, optionally, pigments. The choice of additives used for the PVC finished product is controlled by the cost performance requirements of the end use specification e.g. underground pipe, window frames, intravenous tubing and flooring all have very different ingredients to suit their performance requirements. Previously, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were added to certain PVC products as flame retardants and stabilizers.
Most vinyl products contain plasticizers which dramatically improve their performance characteristic. The most common plasticizers are derivatives of phthalic acid. The materials are selected on their compatibility with the polymer, low volatility levels, and cost. These materials are usually oily colourless substances that mix well with the PVC particles. About 90% of the plasticizer market, estimated to be millions of tons per year worldwide, is dedicated to PVC.
High and low molecular weight phthalates
Phthalates can be divided into three groups based on their molecular weight.
Low molecular weight phthalates have 6 or 7 carbon atoms in their alcohol chain. Medium molecular weight phthalates have 8 or 9 carbons in their alcohol chain. High molecular weight phthalates have from 10 to 13 carbons in their alcohol chain. Low molecular weight phthalates are no longer used in the US because of high volatility at pvc processing temperatures. The most common medium molecular weight phthalates are DOP (dioctyl phthalate, also known as DEHP, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) and DINP (diisononyl phthalate). High molecular weight phthalates have a limit of 12 carbons (if linear) or 13 carbons (if branched) in the alcohol chain because phthalates with longer alcohol chains are incompatible with pvc resin. The more common high molecular weight phthalates are DIDP, DPHP and DTDP, all from branched alcohols. There are phthalates from linear alcohols from 8 to 12 carbons which are used when the flexible pvc compound is to have superior low temperature flexibility and improved weathering. Because of possible health effects, there are movements to replace some phthalates such as DOP/DEHP with safer alternatives in Canada, the European Union, and the United States. In Europe DEHP and DBP are undergoing the REACH Authorisation process Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals with results expected in 2014. Since no applications for BBP and DIBP were received by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), the use of these substances will be phased out in the EU by 21 February 2015.
Mid-high molecular weight phthalates today represent over 85% of all the phthalates currently being produced in Europe (2011). On 31 January 2014 the European Commission published its conclusions regarding the re-evaluation of the restrictions on DINP and DIDP in toys and childcare articles which can be placed in the mouth.The Commission confirmed the main conclusions presented in August last year by the ECHA, which was asked in September 2009 to review any newly available scientific information relative to these two high phthalates.
The European Commission concluded that “no unacceptable risk has been characterised for the uses of DINP and DIDP in articles other than toys and childcare articles which can be placed in the mouth”. With regard to the latter, the existent restrictions are nevertheless maintained, based on the precautionary principle. DINP and DIDP are therefore safe for use in all current consumer applications. The European Chemicals Agency also concluded that no further risk management measures are needed to reduce the exposure of adults and children to DINP and DIDP.
One of the most crucial additives are heat stabilizers. These agents minimize loss of HCl, a degradation process that starts above 70 °C. Once dehydrochlorination starts, it is autocatalytic. Many diverse agents have been used including, traditionally, derivatives of heavy metals (lead, cadmium). Increasingly, metallic soaps (metal “salts” of fatty acids) are favored, species such as calcium stearate. Addition levels vary typically from 2% to 4%. The choice of the best heat stabilizer depends on its cost effectiveness in the end use application, performance specification requirements, processing technology and regulatory approvals.
Rigid PVC applications
Regular PVC (polyvinyl chloride) is a common, strong but lightweight plastic used in construction. It is made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers. If no plasticizers are added, it is known as uPVC (unplasticized polyvinyl chloride), rigid PVC, or vinyl siding in the U.S. In Europe, particularly Belgium, there has been a commitment to eliminate the use of cadmium (previously used as a part component of heat stabilizers in window profiles) and phase out lead based heat stabilizers (as used in pipe and profile areas) such as liquid autodiachromate and calcium polyhydrocummate by 2015. According to the final report of Vinyl 2010 cadmium was eliminated across Europe by 2007. The progressive substitution of lead-based stabilizers is also confirmed in the same document showing a reduction of 75% since 2000 and ongoing. This is confirmed by the corresponding growth in calcium-based stabilizers, used as an alternative to lead-based stabilizers, more and more, also outside Europe.
Tin based stabilizers are mainly used in Europe for rigid, transparent applications due to the high temperature processing conditions used. The situation in North America is different where tin systems are used for almost all rigid PVC applications. Tin stabilizers can be divided into two main groups, the first group containing those with tin-oxygen bonds and the second group with tin-sulphur bonds. According to the European Stabiliser producers most organotin stabilizers have already been successfully REACH registered. More chemical and use information is also available on this site.
Flexible PVC applications
Flexible PVC coated wire and cable for electrical use has traditionally been stabilized with lead but these are being replaced, as in the rigid area, with calcium based systems.
Liquid mixed metal stabilizers are used in several PVC flexible applications such as calendered films, extruded profiles, injection molded soles and footwear, extruded hoses and plastisols where PVC paste is spread on to a backing (flooring, wall covering, artificial leather). Liquid mixed metal stabilizer systems are primarily based on barium, zinc and calcium carboxylates. In general liquid mixed metals like BaZn, CaZn require the addition of co-stabilisers, antioxidants, and organo-phosphites to provide optimum performance.
BaZn stabilizers have successfully replaced cadmium-based stabilizers in Europe in many PVC semi-rigid and flexible applications according to the European producers.
PVC is a thermoplastic polymer. Its properties are usually categorized based on rigid and flexible PVCs.
|Property||Rigid PVC||Flexible PVC|
|Thermal conductivity [W/(m·K)]||0.14–0.28||0.14–0.17|
|Yield strength [psi]||4500–8700||1450–3600|
|Young’s modulus [psi]||490,000|
|Flexural strength (yield) [psi]||10,500|
|Compression strength [psi]||9500|
|Coefficient of thermal expansion (linear) [mm/(mm °C)]||5×10−5|
|Vicat B [°C]||65–100||Not recommended|
|Resistivity [Ω m]||1016||1012–1015|
|Surface resistivity [Ω]||1013–1014||1011–1012|
PVC Compound Mechanical properties
PVC has high hardness and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties enhance with the molecular weight increasing but decrease with the temperature increasing. The mechanical properties of rigid PVC (uPVC) are very good; the elastic modulus can reach 1500-3,000 MPa. The soft PVC (flexible PVC) elastic is 1.5–15 MPa.
PVC Compound Thermal and fire properties
The heat stability of raw PVC is very poor, so the addition of a heat stabilizer during the process is necessary in order to ensure the product’s properties. PVC starts to decompose when the temperature reaches 140 °C, with melting temperature starting around 160 °C. The linear expansion coefficient of rigid PVC is small and has good flame retardancy, the Limiting oxygen index (LOI) being up to 45 or more. The LOI is the minimum concentration of oxygen, expressed as a percentage, that will support combustion of a polymer and noting that air has 20% content of oxygen.
PVC Compound Electrical properties
Since the dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent value, and volume resistivity are high, the corona resistance is not very good, and it is generally suitable for medium or low voltage and low-frequency insulation materials.
PVC Compound Chemical properties
PVC is chemical resistant to acids, salts, bases,fats, alcohols, therefore it is used in sewerage piping. It is also resistant to some solvents, mainly uPVC, plastified PVC is in some cases less resistant to solvents. For example, PVC is resistant to fuel, some paint thinners. Some solvents may only swell it or deform it but not dissolve PVC, but some of them may damage it like tetrahydrofuran or acetone.
PVC Compound Applications
PVC’s relatively low cost, biological and chemical resistance and workability have resulted in it being used for a wide variety of applications. It is used for sewerage pipes and other pipe applications where cost or vulnerability to corrosion limit the use of metal. With the addition of impact modifiers and stabilizers, PVC scrap has become a popular material for window and door which is 50% less than the cost of wooden window and door. By adding plasticizers, it can become flexible enough to be used in cabling applications as a wire insulator. It has been used in many other applications. In 2013, about 39.3 million tons of PVC were consumed worldwide. PVC demand is forecast to increase at an average annual rate of 3.2% until 2021.
Roughly half of the world’s polyvinyl chloride resin manufactured annually is used for producing pipes for municipal and industrial applications. In the water distribution market it accounts for 66% of the market in the US, and in sanitary sewer pipe applications, it accounts for 75%. Its light weight, low cost, and low maintenance make it attractive. However, it must be carefully installed and bedded to ensure longitudinal cracking and overbelling does not occur. Additionally, PVC pipes can be fused together using various solvent cements, or heat-fused (butt-fusion process, similar to joining HDPE pipe), creating permanent joints that are virtually impervious to leakage.
In February 2007 the California Building Standards Code was updated to approve the use of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe for use in residential water supply piping systems. CPVC has been a nationally accepted material in the US since 1982; California, however, has permitted only limited use since 2001. The Department of Housing and Community Development prepared and certified an environmental impact statement resulting in a recommendation that the Commission adopt and approve the use of CPVC. The Commission’s vote was unanimous and CPVC has been placed in the 2007 California Plumbing Code.
In the United States and Canada, PVC pipes account for the largest majority of pipe materials used in buried municipal applications for drinking water distribution and wastewater mains. Buried PVC pipes in both water and sanitary sewer applications that are 4 inches (100 mm) in diameter and larger are typically joined by means of a gasket-sealed joint. The most common type of gasket utilized in North America is a metal reinforced elastomer, commonly referred to as a Rieber sealing system.
PVC Electric cables
In a fire, PVC-coated wires can form hydrogen chloride fumes; the chlorine serves to scavenge free radicals and is the source of the material’s fire retardance. While HCl fumes can also pose a health hazard in their own right, HCl dissolves in moisture and breaks down onto surfaces, particularly in areas where the air is cool enough to breathe and is not available for inhalation. Frequently in applications where smoke is a major hazard (notably in tunnels and communal areas) PVC-free cable insulation is preferred, such as low smoke zero halogen (LSZH) insulation.
Unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (uPVC) for construction
uPVC, also known as rigid PVC, is extensively used in the building industry as a low-maintenance material, particularly in Ireland, the United Kingdom, in the United States and Canada. In the USA and Canada it is known as vinyl, or vinyl siding. The material comes in a range of colors and finishes, including a photo-effect wood finish, and is used as a substitute for painted wood, mostly for window frames and sills when installing double glazing in new buildings, or to replace older single-glazed windows. Other uses include fascia, and siding or weatherboarding. This material has almost entirely replaced the use of cast iron for plumbing and drainage, being used for waste pipes, drainpipes, gutters, and downspouts. uPVC does not contain phthalates, since those are only added to flexible PVC, nor does it contain BPA. uPVC is known as having strong resistance against chemicals, sunlight, and oxidation from water.
Poly(vinyl chloride) is formed in flat sheets in a variety of thicknesses and colors. As flat sheets, PVC is often expanded to create voids in the interior of the material, providing additional thickness without additional weight and minimal extra cost (see Closed-cell PVC foamboard). Sheets are cut using sawand rotary cutting equipment. Plasticized PVC is also used to produce thin, colored, or clear, adhesive-backed films referred to simply as vinyl. These films are typically cut on a computer-controlled plotter or printed in a wide-format printer. These sheets and films are used to produce a wide variety of commercial signage products and markings on vehicles, e.g. car body stripes.
PVC Clothing and furniture
PVC has become widely used in clothing, to either create a leather-like material or at times simply for the effect of PVC. PVC clothing is common in Goth, Punk, clothing fetish and alternative fashions. PVC is less expensive than rubber, leather, and latex which it is therefore used to simulate.
The two main application areas for single use medically approved PVC compounds are flexible containers and tubing: containers used for blood and blood components, for urine collection or for ostomy products and tubing used for blood taking and blood giving sets, catheters, heart-lung bypass sets, hemodialysis sets etc. In Europe, the consumption of PVC for medical devices is approximately 85.000 tons every year. Almost one-third of plastic-based medical devices are made from PVC. The reasons for using flexible PVC in these applications for over 50 years are numerous and based on cost effectiveness linked to transparency, light weight, softness, tear strength, kink resistance, suitability for sterilization and biocompatibility.
DEHP (Di-2ethylhexylphthalate) has been medically approved for many years for use in such medical devices; the PVC-DEHP combination proving to be very suitable for making blood bags because DEHP stabilises red blood cells, minimising haemolysis (red blood cell rupture). However, DEHP is coming under increasing pressure in Europe. The assessment of potential risks related to phthalates, and in particular the use of DEHP in PVC medical devices, was subject to scientific and policy review by the European Union authorities, and on 21 March 2010, a specific labelling requirement was introduced across the EU for all devices containing phthalates that are classified as CMR (carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction). The label aims to enable healthcare professionals to use this equipment safely, and, where needed, take appropriate precautionary measures for patients at risk of over-exposure.
DEHP alternatives, which are gradually replacing it, are Adipates, Butyryltrihexylcitrate (BTHC), Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid, diisononylester (DINCH), Di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, polymerics and trimellitic acid, 2-ethylhexylester (TOTM).
Flexible PVC flooring is inexpensive and used in a variety of buildings covering the home, hospitals, offices, schools, etc. Complex and 3D designs are possible due to the prints that can be created which are then protected by a clear wear layer. A middle vinyl foam layer also gives a comfortable and safe feel. The smooth, tough surface of the upper wear layer prevents the buildup of dirt, which prevents microbes from breeding in areas that need to be kept sterile, such as hospitals and clinics.
Other PVC Compound applications
PVC has been used for a host of consumer products of relatively smaller volume compared to the industrial and commercial applications described above. Another of its earliest mass-market consumer applications was to make vinyl records. More recent examples include wallcovering, greenhouses, home playgrounds, foam and other toys, custom truck toppers (tarpaulins), ceiling tiles and other kinds of interior cladding.
PVC piping is cheaper than metals used in musical instrument making; it is therefore, a common alternative when making instruments, often for leisure or for rarer instruments such as the contrabass flute.
PVC can be usefully modified by chlorination, which increases its chlorine content to 67%. The new material has a higher heat resistance so is primarily used for hot water pipe and fittings, but it is more expensive and it is found only in niche applications, such as certain water heaters and certain specialized clothing. An extensive market for chlorinated PVC is in pipe for use in office building, apartment and condominium fire protection. CPVC, as it is called, is produced by chlorination of aqueous solution of suspension PVC particles followed by exposure to UV light which initiates the free-radical chlorination.
PVC Compound Sustainability
PVC is made from petroleum. The production process also uses sodium chloride. Recycled PVC is broken down into small chips, impurities removed, and the product refined to make pure white PVC. It can be recycled roughly seven times and has a lifespan of around 140 years.
In the UK, approximately 400 tons of PVC are recycled every month. Property owners can recycle it through nationwide collection depots. The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA), for example, after initially rejecting PVC as material for different temporary venues of the London Olympics 2012, has reviewed its decision and developed a policy for its use. This policy highlighted that the functional properties of PVC make it the most appropriate material in certain circumstances while taking into consideration the environmental and social impacts across the whole life cycle, e.g. the rate for recycling or reuse and the percentage of recycled content. Temporary parts, like roofing covers of the Olympic Stadium, the Water Polo Arena, and the Royal Artillery Barracks, would be deconstructed and a part recycled in the Vinyloop process.
NHG works tirelessly to provide PVC Compound that is not only high quality but also sustainable. Ask us today how you can improve your sustainability by utilizing “Green” PVC compound while also lowering your overhead costs.
NHG Eco-Friendly PVC Compound Exclusive United States Manufacturers Representative – Unique Sales Agency
First, USA represents quality electrical manufacturers’ around the world. Some of our manufacturers’ represented you may know like the back of your hand, and some of them might end up being your best-kept secret.
Second, When you’re working with USA and our manufacturers’, you can definitely count on these three elements.
Both USA and our manufacturers have a reputation of being best-in-class at what we do. You can trust your unique needs will be met. We will deliver results to your organization.
While we deliver results, those results are high quality. The products we sell are manufactured to the highest standards by some of the best manufacturers in the world. All of our manufacturers’ represented perform to standards that are equal to or greater than those listed in ISO 9001-2008.
All products sold are manufactured to global standards including ICEA, IEEE, NEMA and ASTM. We don’t believe in offering inferior products, and we know you and your customers appreciate that. When it comes to performance, we are looking to exceed your expectations.
Finally, you have a manufacturer’s rep firm in your arsenal who will do all the little things that you need to get ahead of the competition. Count on USA to help you win more business, and let’s grow together.
For details and more information please e-mail us, or call 1-949-306-6899.